Refrigeration and Air Conditioning.pdf

4o lessons on refrigeration and air conditioning from IIT Kharagpur. Useful training material for mechanical engineering students/college, or as reference for engineer.


  • Lesson 1 History Of Refrigeration [ Natural Refrigeration ~ Artificial Refrigeration ]
  • Lesson 2 History Of Refrigeration – Development Of Refrigerants And Compressors [ Refrigerant development - a brief history ~ Compressor development - a brief history ]
  • Lesson 3 Applications Of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning [ Application of refrigeration in Food processing, preservation and distribution ~ Applications of refrigeration in chemical and process industries ~ Special applications of refrigeration ~ Application of air conditioning ]
  • Lesson 4 Review of fundamental principles – Thermodynamics : Part I [ Definitions ~ Thermodynamic properties ~ Fundamental laws of Thermodynamics ]
  • Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles – Thermodynamics : Part II [ Thermodynamic relations ~ Evaluation of thermodynamic properties ~ Thermodynamic processes ]
  • Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow [ Fluid flow ]
  • Lesson 7 Review of fundamentals: Heat and Mass transfer [ Heat transfer ~ Fundamentals of Mass transfer ~ Analogy between heat, mass and momentum transfer ~ Multimode heat transfer ~ Heat exchangers ]
  • Lesson 8 Methods of producing Low Temperatures [ Sensible cooling by cold medium ~ Endothermic mixing of substances ~ Phase change processes ~ Expansion of Liquids ~ Expansion of gases ~ Thermoelectric Refrigeration ~ Adiabatic demagnetization ]
  • Lesson 9 Air cycle refrigeration systems [ Air Standard Cycle analysis ~ Basic concepts ~ Reversed Carnot cycle employing a gas ~ Ideal reverse Brayton cycle ~ Aircraft cooling systems ]
  • Lesson 10 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems [ Comparison between gas cycles and vapor cycles ~ Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems ~ The Carnot refrigeration cycle ~ Standard Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS) ~ Analysis of standard vapour compression refrigeration system ]
  • Lesson 11 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems: Performance Aspects And Cycle Modifications [ Performance of SSS cycle ~ Modifications to SSS cycle ~ Effect of superheat on system COP ~ Actual VCRS systems ~ Complete vapour compression refrigeration systems ]
  • Lesson 12 Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems [ Flash gas removal using flash tank ~ Intercooling in multi-stage compression ~ Multi-stage system with flash gas removal and intercooling ~ Use of flash tank for flash gas removal ~ Use of flash tank for intercooling only ]
  • Lesson 13 Multi-Evaporator And Cascade Systems [ Individual evaporators and a single compressor with a pressure-reducing valve ~ Multi-evaporator system with multi-compression, intercooling and flash gas removal ~ Multi-evaporator system with individual compressors and multiple expansion valves ~ Limitations of multi-stage systems ~ Cascade Systems ]
  • Lesson 14 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems [ Maximum COP of ideal absorption refrigeration system ~ Properties of refrigerant-absorbent mixtures ~ Basic Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System ~ Refrigerant-absorbent combinations for VARS ]
  • Lesson 15 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems Based On Water-Lithium Bromide Pair [ Properties of water-lithium bromide solutions ~ Steady flow analysis of Water-Lithium Bromide Systems ~ Practical problems in water-lithium bromide systems ~ Commercial systems ~ Heat sources for water-lithium bromide systems ~ Minimum heat source temperatures for LiBr-Water systems ~ Capacity control ]
  • Lesson 16 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems Based On Ammonia-Water Pair [ Properties of ammonia-water solutions ~ Basic Steady-Flow Processes with binary mixtures ]
  • Lesson 17 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems Based On Ammonia-Water Pair [ Working principle ~ Principle of rectification column and dephlegmator ~ Steady-flow analysis of the system ~ Pumpless vapour absorption refrigeration systems ~ Solar energy driven sorption systems ~ Comparison between compression and absorption refrigeration systems ]
  • Lesson 18 Refrigeration System Components: Compressors [ Compressors ~ Reciprocating compressors ]
  • Lesson 19 Performance Of Reciprocating Compressors [ Ideal compressor with clearance ~ Actual compression process ~ Capacity control of reciprocating compressors ~ Compressor lubrication ]
  • Lesson 20 Rotary, Positive Displacement Type Compressors [ Rolling piston (fixed vane) type compressors ~ Multiple vane type compressors ~ Characteristics of rotary, vane type compressors ~ Rotary, screw compressors ~ Scroll compressors ]
  • Lesson 21 Centrifugal Compressors [ Analysis of centrifugal compressors ~ Selection of impeller Speed and impeller diameter ~ Refrigerant capacity of centrifugal compressors ~ Performance aspects of centrifugal compressor ~ Commercial refrigeration systems with centrifugal compressors ]
  • Lesson 22 Condensers & Evaporators [ Condensers ~ Classification of condensers ~ Analysis of condensers ~ Optimum condenser pressure for lowest running cost ]
  • Lesson 23 Condensers & Evaporators [ Classification ~ Natural Convection type evaporator coils ~ Flooded Evaporator ~ Shell-and-Tube Liquid Chillers ~ Shell-and-Coil type evaporator ~ Double pipe type evaporator ~ Baudelot type evaporators ~ Direct expansion fin-and-tube type ~ Plate Surface Evaporators ~ Plate type evaporators ~ Thermal design of evaporators ~ Enhancement of heat transfer coefficients ~ Wilson's plot ]
  • Lesson 24 Expansion Devices [ Capillary Tube ~ Automatic Expansion Valve (AEV) ~ Flow Rate through orifice ~ Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TEV) ~ Float type expansion valves ~ Electronic Type Expansion Valve ~ Practical problems in operation of Expansion valves ]
  • Lesson 25 Analysis Of Complete Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems [ Reciprocating compressor performance characteristics ~ Evaporator Performance ~ Expansion valve Characteristics ~ Condensing unit ~ Performance of complete system - condensing unit and evaporator ~ Effect of expansion valve ]
  • Lesson 26 Refrigerants [ Primary and secondary refrigerants ~ Refrigerant selection criteria ~ Designation of refrigerants ~ Comparison between different refrigerants ]
  • Lesson 27 Psychrometry [ Methods for estimating properties of moist air ~ Measurement of psychrometric properties ~ Calculation of psychrometric properties from p, DBT and WBT ~ Psychrometer ]
  • Lesson 28 Psychrometric Processes [ Important psychrometric processes ~ Air Washers ~ Enthalpy potential ]
  • Lesson 29 Inside And Outside Design Conditions [ Selection of inside design conditions ~ Thermal comfort ~ Heat balance equation for a human being ~ Factors affecting thermal comfort ~ Indices for thermal comfort ~ Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Percent People Dissatisfied (PPD) ~ Selection of outside design conditions ]
  • Lesson 30 Psychrometry Of Air Conditioning Systems [ Summer air conditioning systems ~ Guidelines for selection of supply state and cooling coil ]
  • Lesson 31 Evaporative, Winter And All Year Air Conditioning Systems [ Introduction to evaporative air conditioning systems ~ Classification of evaporative cooling systems ~ Advantages and disadvantages of evaporative cooling systems ~ Applicability of evaporative cooling systems ~ Winter Air Conditioning Systems ~ All year (complete) air conditioning systems ~ ]
  • Lesson 32 Cooling And Heating Load Calculations – Estimation Of Solar Radiation [ Solar radiation ~ Calculation of direct, diffuse and reflected radiations ]
  • Lesson 33 Cooling And Heating Load Calculations -Solar Radiation Through Fenestration – Ventilation And Infiltration [ Solar radiation through fenestration ~ Estimation of solar radiation through fenestration ~ Effect of external shading ~ Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) ~ Infiltration ~ Heating and cooling loads due to ventilation and infiltration ]
  • Lesson 34 Cooling And Heating Load Calculations – Heat Transfer Through Buildings – Fabric Heat Gain/Loss [ One-dimensional, steady state heat transfer through buildings ~ Unsteady heat transfer through opaque walls and roofs ~ One-dimensional, unsteady heat transfer through building walls and roof ]
  • Lesson 35 Cooling And Heating Load Calculations – Estimation Of Required Cooling/Heating Capacity [ Heating versus cooling load calculations ~ Methods of estimating cooling and heating loads ~ Cooling load calculations ~ Estimation of the cooling capacity of the system ~ Heating load calculations ~ ]
  • Lesson 36 Selection Of Air Conditioning Systems [ Selection criteria for air conditioning systems ~ Classification of air conditioning systems ~ All water systems ~ Air-water systems ~ Unitary refrigerant based systems ]
  • Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts [ Transmission of air ~ Flow of air through ducts ~ Estimation of pressure loss in ducts ~ Dynamic losses in ducts ~ Static Regain ]
  • Lesson 38 Design Of Air Conditioning Ducts [ General rules for duct design ~ Classification of duct systems ~ Commonly used duct design methods ~ Performance of duct systems ~ System balancing and optimization ~ Fans ]
  • Lesson 39 Space Air Distribution [ Design of air distribution systems ~ Behaviour of free-stream jet ~ Circular jets ~ Types of air distribution devices ~ Return air inlets ~ Airflow patterns inside conditioned space ~ Stratified mixing flow ~ Spot cooling/heating ~ Selection of supply air outlets ]
  • Lesson 40 Ventilation For Cooling [ Natural versus mechanical ventilation ~ Natural ventilation ~ Guidelines for natural ventilation ~ Forced ventilation using electric fans ~ Interior air movement ]




47 Responses to “Refrigeration and Air Conditioning.pdf”

  1. Michael Laegaard on July 31st, 2008 10:12 pm

    Thanks for all the good informations and webleaning on you´r webside!

    I´m sad that lesson # 17 isen´t acktiv1+?
    Please help me to conect to the file

    Thanking you in advance.

  2. admin on July 31st, 2008 11:30 pm

    @Michael: Link was fixed, thanks for the feedback

  3. Harrison Chinyemu on August 1st, 2008 9:39 pm

    Ihave small business based in electrical and airconditioning.i usually face problem when the aircondition i installed has a falt

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  5. Irfan Malik on August 9th, 2008 8:56 am

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    gulshan kumar

  8. oyewale kehinde on September 25th, 2008 11:10 pm

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  12. sumit saxena on November 5th, 2008 5:12 pm

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  13. man on November 12th, 2008 4:57 am

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  17. sudip kumar das on December 3rd, 2008 10:18 pm

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  18. Eng.Henidak on December 5th, 2008 11:43 pm

    Many thanks for this important and useful lectures

  19. DEEPAK V BHANA on December 11th, 2008 10:30 pm




  20. I Gede Ketut Ariasa on December 17th, 2008 5:55 pm

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  21. chigozie o. on January 26th, 2009 3:49 pm

    good write ups.
    i wish to get ebooks on the role of information technology in engineering. (thermodynamic/heat transfer)

  22. Albert Ntimane on February 6th, 2009 11:21 pm

    Thank you so much for such an open e-learning source, it has been of such help to me to further the little knowledge I have on airconditioning and refrigeration

  23. sohail on February 10th, 2009 8:21 pm

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  25. GirlWithNoName on February 23rd, 2009 1:17 am

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    Any help would be appreciated. Thanks in advance :)

  26. admin on February 23rd, 2009 12:45 pm

    GirlWithNoName: Just made a random check to ensure links are working, and indeed it’s working fine.

    I also separated download links from table of contents for your convenience, you may download by each lesson on refrigeration and air conditioning material (all 40 lessons)

  27. Adeniran on February 27th, 2009 4:59 pm

    Please i will appreciate if you can send me manuals for Nissan Primera 2.0.


  28. scott on March 1st, 2009 6:55 am

    does any one have this in e-book audio or pdf im in study and need help please “refrigeration & air condioning technology”/sixth edition… by bill whitman

  29. manish shukla on March 10th, 2009 4:20 pm



  30. Sally on March 18th, 2009 3:55 am

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  31. suhail on March 23rd, 2009 8:22 pm

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  32. umarfarooq on April 2nd, 2009 2:31 pm

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  33. Aminu Isah on April 7th, 2009 6:44 pm

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  36. NASR on April 28th, 2009 1:28 pm

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  37. gaurav on May 13th, 2009 12:38 pm

    thanks a lot. your notes helped me very much in doing my project on Air conditioning

  38. gaurav on May 13th, 2009 12:43 pm

    Could u please send me notes on Design of an Air conditioning free of cost for study

  39. pedro on May 14th, 2009 12:10 am

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  40. Kipnai on May 23rd, 2009 6:28 am

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    Thanks alot for your generosity may God Jehovah bless you.

  41. tiruneh on May 31st, 2009 10:05 pm

    thank you it cover all the portions and all the necessary material.

  42. andrew jones on June 8th, 2009 3:55 pm

    Dear Admin,

    First of all, i’d like to thank you for this Refrigeration and Air condition lessons and keep up the good work.
    Would you please send me some more links for Refrigeration and Aircondition Technology (RAC&HVAC)practical tutorials on audio Video lesson (for free).
    I would really like to learn these and how it works not just in theory but in reality of course.
    Thank you very much for your understanding and kindness.


  43. wondey on June 14th, 2009 2:01 am

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  44. Navoda on October 26th, 2009 1:05 pm

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  45. ghoge prashant on October 27th, 2009 12:53 pm

    all content of book required in one pdf file

  46. nandhakumar on November 20th, 2009 5:38 pm

    Very nice book,as it covers almost all the portion.Thanks for upload

  47. sudarshan on December 13th, 2009 12:35 am


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