# Basic Electrical Technology.pdf

Other course material in pdf file from EE IIT Kharagpur, about Basic Electrical Technology. Consist of 44 Lessons, in 44 pdf files. It’s a good kickstart for one who want to know deeper about electric circuit, transformer, motors, three phase electricity etc.

Welcome to this course on Basic Electrical Technology. Engineering students of almost all disciplines has to undergo this course (name may be slightly different in different course curriculum) as a core subject in the first semester. It is needless to mention that how much we are dependent on electricity in our day to day life. A reasonable understanding on the basics of applied electricity is therefore important for every engineer.

Apart from learning d.c and a.c circuit analysis both under steady state and transient conditions, you will learn basic working principles and analysis of transformer, d.c motors and induction motor. Finally working principles of some popular and useful indicating measuring instruments are presented.

The course can be broadly divided into 3 major parts, namely: Electrical circuits, Electrical Machines and Measuring instruments. The course is spread over 10 modules covering these 3-parts, each module having two or more lessons under it as detailed below.

A pretty good free e-book on Basic Electrical Technology that also features some of the BL Theraja (B L Theraja) theories.

Contents:

**Module 1 Introduction****Lesson 1 Introducing the Course on Basic Electrical****Lesson 2 Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power an Overview**[ Basic idea of generation ~ Changeover from D.C to A.C ~ A.C generator ~ Thermal, hyddel & nuclear power stations ~ Thermal plant ~ Hydel plants ~ Nuclear plants ~ Transmission of power ~ Single line representation of power system ~ Distribution system ]

**Module-2 D.C. circuits****Lesson 3 Introduction of Electric Circuit**[ Basic Elements & Introductory Concepts ~ Linear and Nonlinear Circuits ~ Kirchhoff's Laws ~ Meaning of Circuit Ground and the Voltages referenced to Ground ~ Understanding the Basic Principles of Voltage Dividers ~ Potentiometer and its function ~ Practical Voltage and Current Sources ~ Independent and Dependent Sources that encountered in electric circuits ~ Understanding Delivering and Absorbing Power by the Source.]**Lesson 4 Loop Analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages and currents**[ Solution of Electric Circuit Based on Mesh (Loop) Current Method ]**Lesson 5 Node-voltage analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages and currents**[ Node voltage analysis ~ Solution of Electric Circuit Based on Node Voltage Method ]**Lesson 6 Wye (Y) – Delta (ÃŽ”) OR Delta (ÃŽ”)-Wye (Y) Transformations**[ Delta (ÃŽ") - Wye (Y) conversion ~ Conversion from Delta (ÃŽ") to Star or Wye (Y) ~ Conversion from Star or Wye (Y) to Delta (ÃŽ") ~ Application of Star ()Y to Delta ÃŽ"() or Delta ÃŽ"() to Star ()Y Transformation ]**Lesson 7 Superposition Theorem in the context of dc voltage and current sources acting in a resistive network**[ Statement of superposition theorem ~ Procedure for using the superposition theorem ~ Application of superposition theorem ~ Limitations of superposition Theorem ]**Lesson 8 Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems in the context of dc voltage and current sources acting in a resistive network**[ The procedure for applying Thevenin's theorem ~ Application of Thevenin's theorem ~ Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ~ Proof of Thevenin Theorem ~ Norton's theorem ~ Application of Norton's Theorem ]**Lesson 9 Analysis of dc resistive network in presence of one non-linear element**[ Application of load-line method ]

**Module-3 R-L & R-C Transients****Lesson 10 Study of DC transients in R-L and R-C circuits**[ Significance of Inductance of a coil and dc transients in a simple R-L circuit ~ Inductance calculation from physical dimension of coil ~ Continuity condition of Inductors ~ Study of dc transients and steady state response of a series R-L circuit. ~ Growth or Rise of current in R-L circuit ~ Fall or Decay of current in a R-L circuit ~ Energy stored in an inductor ~ Capacitor and its behavior ~ Continuity condition of capacitors ~ Study of dc transients and steady state response of a series R-C circuit. ~ Charging of a capacitor or Growth of a capacitor voltage in dc circuits ~ Discharging of a capacitor or Fall of a capacitor voltage in dc circuits ~ Energy stored in a capacitor ]**Lesson 11 Study of DC transients in R-L-C Circuits**[ Response of a series R-L-C circuit due to a dc voltage source ~ Average and RMS Values of Sinusoidal Voltage Waveform ]

**Module-4 Single phase A.C circuits****Lesson 12 Generation of Sinusoidal Voltage Waveform (AC) and Some Fundamental Concepts**[ Generation of Sinusoidal (AC) Voltage Waveform ~ Periodic Voltage or Current Waveform ]**Lesson 13 Representation of Sinusoidal Signal by a Phasor and Solution of Current in R-L-C Series Circuits**[ Representation of Sinusoidal Signal by a Phasor ~ Generalized case ~ Phasor representation of Voltage and Current ~ Phasor Algebra ~ Representation of a phasor and Transformation ~ Addition/Subtraction of Phasors ~ Multiplication/Division of Phasors ]**Lesson 14 Solution of Current in R-L-C Series Circuits**[ Solution of Steady State Current in Circuits Fed from Single-phase AC Supply ~ Elementary Circuits ~ Series Circuits ~ Power consumed and Power factor ~ Complex Power, Volt-Amperes (VA) and Reactive Power ]**Lesson 15 Solution of Current in AC Series and Parallel Circuits**[ Solution of Current in R-L-C Series Circuit ~ Solution of Current in Parallel Circuit ]**Lesson 16 Solution of Current in AC Parallel and Series-parallel Circuits**[ Solution of Current in Series-parallel Circuit ]**Lesson 17 Resonance in Series and Parallel Circuits**[ Resonance in Series and Parallel Circuits ]

**Module-5 Three phase AC circuits****Lesson 18 Three-phase Balanced Supply**[ Generation of Three-phase Balanced Voltages ~ Three-phase Voltages for Star Connection ~ Reversal of phase sequence from R-Y-B to R-B-Y ~ Relation between the Phase and Line Voltages for Star Connection ~ Relation between the Phase and Line Voltages for Delta Connection ~ Currents for Circuit with Balanced Load (Star-connected) ~ Total Power Consumed in the Circuit (Star-connected) ~ Delta(ÃŽ")-Star(Y) conversion and Star-Delta conversion ]**Lesson 19 Three-phase Delta-Connected Balanced Load**[ Currents for Circuits with Balanced Load (Delta-connected) ~ Total Power Consumed in the Circuit (Delta-connected) ]**Lesson 20 Measurement of Power in a Three-phase Circuit**[ Two-wattmeter Method of Power Measurement in a Three-phase Circuit ~ Phasor diagram for a three-phase balanced star-connected circuit ]

**Module-6 Magnetic circuits & Core losses****Lesson 21 Magnetic Circuits**[ Different laws for calculating magnetic field ~ Biot-Savart law ~ Ampere's circuital law ~ Application of Ampere's circuital law in magnetic circuit ~ Reluctance & permeance ~ B-H Characteristics ~ Different zones of B-H characteristic ~ Analysis of Series magnetic circuit ~ Analysis of Series-parallel magnetic circuit ~ Important equations ~ General discussion on solving problems ~ Worked out example ]**Lesson 22 Eddy Current & Hysteresis Loss**[ Voltage induced in a stationary coil placed in a time varying field ~ Eddy current ~ Use of thin plates or laminations for core ~ Derivation of an expression for eddy current loss in a thin plate ~ Hysteresis Loss ~ Undirectional time varying exciting current ~ Energy stored, energy returned & energy density ~ Hysteresis loop with alternating exciting current ~ Hysteresis loss & loop area ~ Seperation of core loss ~ Inductor ~ Force between two opposite faces of the core across an air gap ]

**Module-7 Transformer****Lesson 23 Ideal Transformer**[ Ideal Transformer ~ Core flux gets fixed by voltage and frequency ~ Analysis of ideal transformer ~ No load phasor diagram ~ Transformer under loaded condition ~ Dot convention ~ Equivalent circuit of an ideal transformer ]**Lesson 24 Practical Transformer**[ Practical transformer ~ Core loss ~ Taking core loss into account ~ Taking winding resistances and leakage flux into account ~ A few words about equivalent circuit ]**Lesson 25 Testing, Efficiency & Regulation**[ Determination of equivalent circuit parameters ~ Qualifying parameters with suffixes LV & HV ~ Open Circuit Test ~ Short circuit test ~ Efficiency of transformer ~ All day efficiency ~ Regulation ]**Lesson 26 Three Phase Transformer**[ Three phase transformer ~ Introducing basic ideas ~ A wrong star-star connection ~ Bank of three phase transformer ~ 3-phase transformer - a single unit ~ Vector Group of 3-phase transformer ]**Lesson 27 Auto-Transformer**[ 2-winding transformer as Autotransformer ~ Autotransformer as a single unit ]**Lesson 28 Problem solving on Transformers**[ Problems on 2 winding single phase transformers ~ Problems on 3-phase ideal transformer ~ Problems on ideal auto transformers ]

**Module-8 Three phase induction motor****Lesson 29 Rotating Magnetic Field in Three-phase Induction Motor**[ Three-phase Induction Motor ~ Rotating Magnetic Field ~ Four-Pole Stator ~ The Reversal of Direction of Rotating Magnetic Field ]**Lesson 30 Construction and Principle of Operation of IM**[ Construction of Three-phase Induction Motor ~ Principle of Operation ~ The frequency of the induced emf and current in the rotor ]**Lesson 31 Equivalent Circuit and Power Flow Diagram of IM**[ The induced emf per phase, in the motor windings ~ The equivalent circuit per phase, of the rotor ~ The relation between rotor input, rotor copper loss and rotor output ~ Power flow diagram ]**Lesson 32 Torque-Slip (speed) Characteristics of Induction Motor (IM)**[ Gross Torque Developed ~ Torque-slip (speed) Characteristics ~ Starting Current and Torque ]**Lesson 33 Different Types of Starters for Induction Motor (IM)**[ Direct-on-Line (DOL) Starters ~ Need for Starters in IM ~ Starters for Cage IM ~ Rotor Resistance Starters for Slip-ring (wound rotor) IM ]**Lesson 34 Starting Methods for Single-phase Induction Motor**[ Single-phase Induction Motor ~ Double field revolving theory ~ Starting Methods ~ Resistance Split-phase Motor ~ Capacitor Split-phase Motor ~ Capacitor-start Motor ~ Capacitor-start and Capacitor-run Motor ~ Shaded-pole Motor ]

**Module-9 D.C Machines****Lesson 35 Constructional Features of D.C Machines**[ Constructional Features ~ D.C machine Armature Winding ~ Armature winding: General procedure ~ Developed diagram ~ Lap winding ~ Another example of Lap winding ~ Wave winding ]**Lesson 36 Principle of Operation of D.C Machines**[ Example of Single conductor Generator & Motor ~ Rotating Machines ~ Driving & Opposing torques ~ Generator mode ~ Motor mode ~ Condition for steady production of torque ~ D.C generator: Basic principle of operation ~ D.C motor: Basic principle of operation ]**Lesson 37 EMF & Torque Equation**[ EMF & Torque Equations ~ EMF Equation ~ Torque Equation ~ GNP and MNP ~ Armature reaction ~ No Load operation ~ Loaded operation ~ Cross magnetizing & Demagnetizing AT ~ Commutation & Armature reaction ]**Lesson 38 D.C Generators**[ Generator types & characteristics ~ Characteristics of a separately excited generator ~ Characteristics of a shunt generator ~ Load characteristic of shunt generator ~ Prediction of approximate load characteristic from OCC & Rf line ~ Compound generator ]**Lesson 39 D.C Motors**[ Starting of D.C shunt motor ~ Problems of starting with full voltage ~ A simple starter ~ 3-point starter ~ Speed control of shunt motor ~ Speed control by varying armature resistance ~ Speed control by varying field current ~ Speed control by armature voltage variation ~ Ward Leonard method: combination of Va and If control ~ Series motor ~ Characteristics of series motor ~ Speed control of series motor ~ Speed control below base speed ~ Speed control above base speed ~ Braking of d.c shunt motor: basic idea ~ Rheostatic braking ~ Plugging or dynamic braking ~ Regenerative braking ]**Lesson 40 Losses, Efficiency and Testing of D.C. Machines**[ Major losses ~ Swinburne's Test ~ Hopkinson's test ~ Procedure ~ Loading the machines ~ Calculation of efficiency ~ Condition for maximum efficiency ~ Maximum efficiency for motor mode ~ Maximum efficiency for General mode ]**Lesson 41 Problem Solving on D.C Machines**[ Shunt motor problems ~ Problems on Series Motor ~ D.C generator problems ~ Operation of d.c machine connected to d.c bus (fixed d.c voltage) ]

**Module-10 Measuring instruments****Lesson 42 Study of DC-AC Measuring Instruments**[ Various forces/torques required in measuring instruments ~ General Theory Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Instruments ~ A multi-range ammeters and voltmeters ~ Advantages, Limitations and sources of errors ~ Construction and Basic principle operation of Moving-iron Instruments ~ Construction of Moving-iron Instruments ~ Ranges of Ammeters and Voltmeters ]**Lesson 43 Study of Electro-Dynamic Type Instruments**[ Operating Principle ~ More about ammeters ~ Ranges of Ammeters and Voltmeters ~ Connections for ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter ~ Inductance of Voltage-Coil Introduces an Error in Wattmeter ~ Advantages and disadvantages of electro-dynamic instruments ]**Lesson 44 Study of Single Phase Induction Type Energy Meter or Watt-hour Meter**[ Construction of induction type energy meter ~ Errors in the energy meter ~ Extension of Instrument Range ]

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